Quick-frozen Taiwan grilled sausage technology sharing with analysis of common quality problems of quick-frozen sausages
Taiwan grilled sausage originates from Taiwan and is widely loved. Taiwanese grilled sausage is sweeter and has its special spice flavor; it is mainly made of sausage, and it can be grilled, steamed or fried when eating. It is a leisure food suitable for any time. Meat food; traditional Taiwanese grilled sausages use pork as the main ingredient, but beef, mutton, and chicken are also acceptable, must contain appropriate fat, and taste may vary slightly.In recent years, the quick-frozen Taiwanese grilled sausage has been favored by consumers with children and women as the main consumer groups due to its fresh and moist color, crisp and sweet taste, sweet and delicious taste.The product is kept below -18°C during storage and circulation, so it has a long shelf life and is easy to store. It can be roasted and sold by rolling sausage machine in shopping malls, supermarkets and places where people move, or it can be fried and eaten at home. The eating method is simple and convenient. At present, the production and sales momentum of Taiwan grilled sausages spreads all over the country, and the development prospect is infinitely broad.
1. Required equipment
meat grinder, blender, sausage machine, fumigation oven, vacuum packaging machine, quick freezer, etc.
2. Process flow
Defrost raw meat → mincing → marinating → ingredients and stirring → enema → knotting, → hanging → drying → cooking → cooling → quick freezing → vacuum packaging → quality inspection and packaging → sanitary inspection and refrigeration
3. Process points
3.1 Choice of raw meat
Select fresh (frozen) pork meat from the epidemic-free area that has passed the veterinary health inspection and an appropriate amount of pig fat as the raw meat. Due to the low fat content of pork meat, adding an appropriate amount of pig fat with high fat content can improve the taste, aroma and tenderness of the product.
3.2 ground meat
The raw meat can be cut into cubes with a dicing machine, the size of which is 6-10mm square. It can also be minced by a meat grinder. The mesh plate of the meat grinder should be 8mm in diameter. Before the meat grinding operation, it is necessary to check whether the metal sieve plate and the blade are in good agreement, and the temperature of the raw material is cooled to 0 ° C to -3 ° C, which can be minced pork and fat fat respectively.
Add salt, sodium nitrite, compound phosphate and 20kg of fat and ice water to pork and fat in proportion to mix evenly, cover the surface of the container with a layer of plastic film to prevent condensed water from falling and contaminate the meat filling, and store it in a low-temperature warehouse at 0-4°C Marinate for more than 12 hours.
3.4 Ingredients and Stirring
3.4.1 Recipe: Take 100kg of raw meat as an example, 100kg of No. 1 meat (or 15kg of pig fat, 85kg of No. 2 meat), 2.5kg of salt, 750g of P201 compound phosphate, 10kg of white sugar, 650g of monosodium glutamate, 80g of iso-VC sodium, cala 600g of glue, 0.5kg of isolated soybean protein, 120g of pork essential oil, 500g of sausage spice, 10kg of potato starch, 6kg of corn modified starch, appropriate amount of red yeast rice (100 color value), and 50kg of ice water.
3.4.2 Mixing: Accurately weigh the required accessories according to the recipe, first pour the marinated meat into the mixer, stir for 5-10 minutes, fully extract the salt-soluble protein in the meat, and then add salt, sugar, monosodium glutamate, Sausage spices, white wine and other accessories and an appropriate amount of ice water are fully stirred to form a thick meat filling. Finally, add cornstarch, potato starch, and the remaining ice water, stir well, and stir until it becomes sticky and shiny. , During the whole stirring process, the temperature of the meat filling should always be controlled below 10 ℃.
The sausage is made of natural pig and sheep casings with a diameter of 26-28mm or collagen casings with a diameter of 20-24mm. Generally, it is better to use a protein sausage with a folded diameter of 20mm for a single weight of 40g, and the filling length is about 11cm. It is better to use a protein sausage with a folded diameter of 24mm for a single weight of 60g, and the filling length is about 13cm. The size of the sausage of the same weight is related to the filling quality , the enema machine is better to use an automatic kink vacuum enema machine.
3.6 tie, hang
The knots should be uniform and firm, the intestines should be placed evenly when hanging, and the intestines should not be crowded against each other, keep a certain distance, ensure smooth drying and ventilation, and do not rely on the white phenomenon when singing.
3.7 drying, cooking
Put the filled sausages into a steaming oven to dry and cook, drying temperature: 70°C, drying time: 20 minutes; after drying, it can be cooked, cooking temperature: 80-82°C, cooking time: 25 minutes. After the cooking is finished, the steam is discharged and cooled to room temperature in a ventilated place.
3.8 Pre-cooling (cooling)
When the product temperature is close to room temperature, immediately enter the pre-cooling room for pre-cooling. The pre-cooling temperature requires 0-4 ℃, and the temperature of the sausage center is below 10 ℃. The air in the pre-cooling room needs to be forcedly cooled with a clean air machine.
3.9 vacuum packaging
Use frozen vacuum packaging bags, put them into vacuum bags in two layers, 25 per layer, 50 per bag, vacuum degree -0.08Mpa, vacuum time more than 20 seconds, and the sealing is smooth and firm.
Transfer the vacuum-packaged Taiwanese grilled sausages to the quick-freezing warehouse for freezing. The temperature in the quick-freezing room is below -25°C for 24 hours, so that the central temperature of the Taiwanese grilled sausages quickly drops below -18°C and exits the quick-freezing warehouse.
3.11 Quality Inspection and Packaging
Inspect the quantity, weight, shape, color, taste and other indicators of Taiwan grilled sausages. After passing the inspection, the qualified products will be packed into boxes.
3.12 Sanitary inspection and refrigeration
Hygienic index requirements; the total number of bacteria is less than 20,000/g; Escherichia coli group, negative; no pathogenic bacteria. Qualified products are refrigerated in a refrigerator below -18℃, and the product temperature is below -18℃, and the storage period is about 6 months.
Common quality problems in the form of quick-frozen sausages
1. ruptured casing
The reasons for casing rupture can be summarized into three aspects:
1.1 In terms of casing, if the casing itself has different degrees of corruption, the thickness of the intestinal wall will be uneven, loose, fragile, and poor in breaking resistance. With salt-etched casings, the casing shrinks and loses its elasticity. Enemas with this type of casing will rupture.
1.2 In terms of meat filling, if the meat filling has a higher moisture content, when the meat filling is rapidly heated, the expansion of the meat filling will also burst the casing.
1.3 In terms of craftsmanship, if the thickness of the intestines is different, the thick intestines are easy to crack when cooking in the same pot; if the enema is not tight, it is too tight, and it is easy to crack during cooking; when the heat is too hot and the temperature is too high, it will be heard. To the crackling sound of casing rupture; the heating time is too short to bake to a certain extent, and when the casing protein is not completely solidified and cooked in the pot, the sausage cannot withstand the pressure of the expansion of the filling, and it will also cause rupture. Therefore, care should be taken not to turn on enough steam when cooking, so as to avoid the rupture of the casing due to excessive local temperature. In addition, when turning the intestines, you should also handle it with care to prevent it from being smashed and broken.
2. cracked skin
If the smoking power is high, the temperature is high, or the lower end of the intestines is too close to the fire, the lower end of the intestines will be hard skinned, and in severe cases, the shell will be peeled off, causing the filling of the intestines to separate. ).
There are two reasons for the appearance of the enema: one is the resin deposition formed by the polymerization of phenolic (especially formaldehyde and phenol) in the smoke; Therefore, the temperature during smoking is not enough or the quality of smoking is poor, and the enema that absorbs moisture after smoking will make the casings have poor gloss. In addition, the diameters of the casings are too different, and the thicker intestines are not easy to be cooked when cooked in the same pot, and their color is dark and bad. There is also an enema filled with stale meat, and its appearance is not fresh. Enemas are coated with liquid paraffin before packaging to give the product a bright shine
4. Different shades of color
The reason for this phenomenon, in addition to the difference in boiled dyeing, is also related to smoking. When smoking, the temperature is high, the color is light; the temperature is low, the color is dark. When the outer surface of the casing is dry, the color is lighter, and when the outer surface of the sausage body is wet, the smoke components dissolve in the water, and the color will deepen. If the intestines are stacked together when smoking, the adhesions are talked about.
5. The intestines are soft and not elastic
One reason is that in the process of pre-cooling and pickling, the raw materials are contaminated and deteriorated by bacteria, and some or all of the enema will produce gas and slag. The second reason is that it is undercooked. This type of intestine is not only soft and inflexible, but also produces acid, gas, fat, and inedible when the temperature is high. The third reason is that the protein in the muscle is not well aggregated, that is, some factor affects the emulsifying performance of the filling.
There are three factors that affect the emulsifying properties of sausage fillings:
5.1 In the process of salting or technological operation, the protein will be denatured when the temperature is high, the colloidal state of the protein will be destroyed, the water retention capacity of the meat filling will be affected, the free water will flow out, and the sausage will be slag.
5.2 When the mechanical stirring is insufficient, the release of myosin is incomplete, and the meat filling will appear wet surface.
5.3 Impermeable pickling, the myosin in the protein is not completely transformed from a gel state to a sol state with strong adhesion, which affects the water absorption of the meat filling.
6. wrinkle-free appearance
The wrinkles on the outer surface of the casing are caused by the reduction of the moisture of the sausage filling and the shrinkage of the casing during smoking. The generation of wrinkles is related to the quality of the enema itself and the smoking process. The intestines are soft and non-elastic, and when the finished product is reached, the appearance is generally not wrinkled. The diameter of the intestines is thick and it looks very full, and the water in the intestines is too large, which will affect the production of wrinkles. The wood is damp, the humidity in the smoke is high, the temperature does not come up, or the smoke is not enough, which will also cause no wrinkles after smoking.
Analysis of Common Quality Problems in Aspects
The normal indicators of the cut surface of the enema are that the cut surface is firm and moist, the meat is uniform rose red, and the pores are rare. Common quality problems are as follows.
1. yellowish color
The color of the cut surface is yellow, depending on whether it is yellow when it is cut or gradually becomes yellow. It is normal if the cut surface is uniform rose red when it is just cut, and the dew gradually fades and turns yellow when exposed to the air. This slow fading is due to the fact that the pink nitric oxide myoglobin is gradually oxidized to methemoglobin under the action of visible light and oxygen, which causes the cut surface to fade and turn yellow. Oxidative fading can be prevented if the incision is protected from bacteria and the influence of visible light and oxygen. Dip the cut intestines in a dilute solution of vitamin C to prevent oxidative fading. The other is that the cut surface is red but light and uneven after cutting, and it is easy to fade. This is due to insufficient nitrite dosage. There is also a phenomenon, that is, although the coloring agent is used, the meat filling does not turn rose red at all. The reason is that the freshness of the raw materials is not good, and the fat has been oxidized, which will produce organic peroxides, which will make the color of the meat sausage not good; the second is that the pH value of the meat filling is too high, and the nitrite cannot be decomposed to produce monoxide. nitrogen, and no red nitric oxide myoglobin.
2. more stomata
There are many pores on the cut surface, which not only affects the elasticity and appearance, but also turns yellow and gray around the pores. This is caused by air getting into the stuffing. Oxygen in the air causes oxidative fading of nitric oxide and myoglobin. Therefore, it is best to use a vacuum mixer and a vacuum enema machine when enema. When using a vacuum enema machine, generally, the vacuum pump should be turned on first, and the machine should be turned on after reaching the specified vacuum degree [350~400mmHg (lmmHg=133.322Pa) or more]. The meat filling should be formed into a whole ball and fall into the filling cylinder. It should be firm when filling, otherwise, once the process of hanging, baking, etc., the meat filling will sink, which will also cause the upper part to be hollow. If using a piston enema machine, be sure to pack the meat filling tightly and leave as little space as possible to avoid voids and pores during the enema. When filling, use both hands to form a ball of meat filling, and throw it high and slam until it is filled repeatedly to reduce the gap.
3. The cut surface is not firm and not moist
The reason for this phenomenon is that the intestines are soft and inelastic. Others such as insufficient water addition, less juice and coarse quality of the product; too tight, too loose, uneven and unsharp edge of the meat grinder knife surface, etc., will cause mechanical heat and make the minced meat heated and affect the quality. In addition, the fat is too finely minced, and the heat treatment is easy to melt, which also affects the cut surface.